Aims and Scope
May 31, 2019
Emerging infectious diseases are infections that have recently appeared in a population over a defined period of time whereas, re-emerging infectious diseases are those that were once a health problem in a particular region or a country and are now emerging again. Parasitic infectious diseases represent a serious health problem in many developing countries and recently have started spreading to developed nations via international traveling or immigration. Malaysia is facing many challenges caused by various parasitic pathogens. The lack of awareness among disadvantaged populations such as the Orang Asli community and the dependency on foreign workers has led to an influx of immigrants to Malaysia from countries endemic to various parasitic diseases. Understanding the social and economic dynamics of such diseases can help anticipate and subsequently control their emergence. Raising public awareness, developing robust public health infrastructure and implementing point-of-care diagnostics will help curb the spread of such diseases. This review provides epidemiological insights into the reported emerging and re-emerging parasitic infectious diseases in Malaysia over the past two decades.
The Open Microbiology JournalISSN: 1874-2858
Volume: 14, 2020
|Irina V. Kiseleva|
Department of Virology
Institute of Experimental Medicine
Biography of Irina V. Kiseleva
Department of Virology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia
This article by Dr. Kwame K. Asare et al. is published in The Open Microbiology Journal, Volume 13, 2019
Passing on dangerous naked explosives: the state of multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Cape Coast, Ghana.
The dynamisms involved in bacterial drug resistance, emergence and spread of multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Ghana are poorly understood. The current state of antibiotic resistance is gradually becoming alarming. To make matters worse, the factors that drive the transmission of antibiotic resistance among organisms in Ghana are still poorly understood. The isolation of multi-antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae to ß-lactams, the first, second and third generation cephalosporins from circulating coin currencies and meat sources in Cape Coast, Ghana, is a major concern as it poses a serious threat to the entire healthcare system. E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Shigella spp, Klebsiellaspp, Pseudomonas spp, and Proteus spp showed resistance to second and third generation cephalosporins, an effective antibiotic against Enterobacteriaceae species. There is a possibility that this extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in circulation will spread rapidly with limited timely treatment to curb the infections. These microbes cause a range of infections including acute diarrhoea, respiratory infection, urinary tract infections (UTI), bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and lung abscess. The easy spread of this multi-antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae through contact with contaminated surfaces and by person-to-person contact makes it major public health concern as it has a high implication on the health facilities of the region which have limited resources. The isolation of MDR Enterobacteriaceae from circulating coin currencies and meat sources gives an indication of an individual's multiple points of contact with these pathogens during daily routines, risk of infection and possible transmission to another person. The impending danger of possible outbreak of multiple ESBL-E resistant strains requires immediate public health measures to circumvent an epidemic outbreak in Ghana. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of ESBL-E transmission would be essential in providing permanent control measures to deal with drug resistance in Ghana. Personal hygiene and proper handling of currencies are encouraged to mitigate the spread of drug-resistant pathogens.
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Asare Kwame Kumi, MPhil, PhD
Department of Protozoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University
This article by Dr. Saad Musbah Alasil and Dr. Khairul Anuar Abdullah is published in The Open Microbiology Journal, Volume 13, 2019
Malaysia is facing many challenges caused by various parasitic pathogens. The lack of awareness among disadvantaged populations such as the Orang Asli community and the dependency on foreign workers has led to an influx of immigrants to Malaysia from countries endemic with various parasitic diseases. Amoebiasis is mainly encountered in poor rural areas in Malaysia, however it has the potential to re-emerge. Routine mass-drug administration on newly arriving foreign workers and health education programs are needed to prevent its re-emergence.
Researchers from MAHSA University in Malaysia have published a review on the epidemiology of various parasitic diseases in the country over the last 20 years. The report has been published in The Open Microbiology Journal. The report stresses that Malaysian authorities must implement strategies that provide better water treatment to avoid the emergence of blastocystis. Lymphatic filariasis has the potential to re-emerge due to its easy mode of transmission as well as the presence of a large number of immigrant workers in Malaysia from endemic countries. To prevent the emergence of giardiasis in Malaysia, a multidisciplinary approach is required to determine the level of water contamination with Giardia as well as Cryptosporidium. The epidemiology of malaria is becoming more complex in Malaysia. There is a shift towards infections among men and adults rather than women and children. Therefore, the ministry of health should raise public awareness and the use of point-of-care diagnostics.
Malaysia harbors a large variety of ecological niches that favor the transmission of Toxoplasma spp. Which has led to an increase in the incidence of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, surveillance programs should be initiated to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. The existence of human trypanosomiasis from neighboring Thailand and reporting cases in cattle from neighboring Indonesia, can all lead to its emergence in Malaysia. Parasitic infectious diseases will continue to appear in Malaysia leading to unpredictable outbreaks that challenge healthcare personnel and emphasize the urgent need for effective surveillance and control measures. Despite the challenges, Malaysia is strongly committed to curb the spread of these diseases.
To access the entire article please visit: https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOMICROJ-13-112
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