Pathogens in Urine from a Female Patient with Overactive Bladder Syndrome Detected by Culture-independent High Throughput Sequencing: A Case Report

Huma Siddiqui 1, Karin Lagesen 2, Alexander J Nederbragt 1, Lars M Eri 3, Stig L Jeansson 4, Kjetill S Jakobsen *, 1
1 University of Oslo, Department of Biosciences, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
2 University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Sequencing Centre and Department of Medical Genetics, 0407 Oslo, Norway
3 University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital HF Aker-Oslo and Faculty of Medicine, Urological Clinic, P.O. Box 4956 Nydalen 0424 Oslo, Norway
4 University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital HF Aker-Oslo and Faculty of Medicine, Division of Medicine, ME/CFS-Center, P.O. Box 4956 Nydalen 0424 Oslo, Norway

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 5460
Abstract HTML Views: 3285
PDF Downloads: 987
Total Views/Downloads: 9732
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2634
Abstract HTML Views: 1501
PDF Downloads: 654
Total Views/Downloads: 4789

Creative Commons License
© Siddiqui et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biosciences, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway; Tel: + 47 22854602; Fax: + 47 22852726; E-mail:



Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is described as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence. A range of medical conditions shares the symptoms of OAB, however the diagnosis is contingent on the exclusion of urinary tract infection (UTI). Knowing that urine dipstick and routine culture of bacteria can miss UTI diagnosis caused by low-count bacteriuria or “difficult-to-culture” pathogens, we examined a case of OAB with a culture-independent approach.

Case presentation:

A 61-year-old Norwegian female with a long history of urinary symptoms and a diagnosis of OAB was selected as a suitable subject for a culture-independent 16S rDNA analysis on the patient´s urine. The patient’s medical records showed no history of recurrent UTI, however, when the urine specimen was sent to routine culture at the time of study it showed a significant bacteriuria caused by a single bacterium, and the patient was prescribed antibiotics. The 16S rDNA analysis revealed not one, but many different bacteria, including a considerable amount of fastidious bacteria, indicating a polymicrobial state. One year later, the subject was still experiencing severe symptoms, and a follow-up analysis was performed. This time the urine-culture was negative, however, the 16S rDNA profile was quite similar to that of the first sample, again displaying a complex bacterial profile.


The use of 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and sequence analysis to uncover “difficult-to-culture” bacteria should be considered when examining patients with chronic urinary symptoms. These methods may contribute to further elucidation of the etiology of overactive bladder syndrome and other urinary syndromes.

Keywords: 16S rDNA, amplicon, high throughput sequencing, microbiome, overactive bladder (OAB), urine.