Polymerase Chain Reaction Study of Human Bocavirus in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

Noha Mostafa Mahmoud1, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki2, *, Abdel-Rahman Eid3, Mai Esam Ahmed4, Eman Hamdy Mohamed4, Ehab Mohamed Fahmy5
1 Medical Microbiology, and Immunology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Clinical Pathology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt
3 Pediatric Department, Genetics Unit, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt
4 Clinical Pathology Department, Beni-Suef Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef, Egypt
5 Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt

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© 2022 Mahmoud et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Clinical Pathology Department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt; E-mail:



The present study aimed to detect Human bocavirus (HBoV) in stool samples from young children below 5 years complaining of acute gastroenteritis (GE) in addition to detection of rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus.


The study included 90 children below 5 years with acute GE with excluded bacterial pathogens. The determination of the presence of HBoV was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) beside determination of astrovirus and norovirus by multiplex PCR and rotavirus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


The most prevalent virus among the studied viruses was rotavirus (33.3%) detected by ELISA for antigen in the stool. The other three viruses detected by molecular methods were bocavirus (14.4%), astrovirus (13.3%), and norovirus (10%). Mixed viral infection with two or more viruses was detected in 16 children (17.8%). The most common was bocavirus and rotavirus in 6 patients (37.5%). In the study of demographic and clinical presentations of the children with HBoV, the affected children were mainly females, i.e., 10 (76.9%), from rural residence i.e., 11 (84.6%) with the mild classification of GE in 7 children (53.8%) and moderate GE in 6 children (46.2%) and none of them had severe GE. Fever was the most common presenting sign in those children (53.8%) followed by vomiting (46.2%).


The study highlights the existence of HBoV in children with acute GE under the age of five. The infection associated with this virus was either mild or moderate in severity. The combined viral infection was common especially associated with rotavirus. There is a need for further additional study to identify the type of the circulated strain of bocavirus and the confections with other pathogens.

Keywords: Bocavirus, Nested PCR, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Children, Gastroenteritis.