The Immune Response, Safety, and Efficacy of Emergency Use Authorization-Granted COVID-19 Vaccines: A Review

Tafere M. Belete1 , * Open Modal Authors Info & Affiliations
The Open Microbiology Journal 25 Mar 2022 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18742858-v16-e2201240


COVID-19 has affected millions of people, causing a burden on healthcare systems as well as economies throughout the world. Antiviral drugs do not work well enough for everyone. The mortality rate in the world is still significant. Developing safe, effective, affordable, and fast-acting vaccines for COVID-19 is critical for reducing new viral strains in this pandemic and re-establishing normality in the future. Therefore, several pharmaceutical companies are racing to develop effective vaccines for COVID-19. Scientists have developed different kinds of candidate vaccines with various platforms. By March 2021, thirteen vaccines were approved for emergency use in several countries across the world, whilst over 90 vaccine candidates were under clinical trials. There are also several vaccine candidates in Phase 3 trials awaiting results and approval for their use. These candidate vaccines revealed positive results in the previous phase trials, whereby they can induce an immune response with less adverse reaction in the participants. This review focuses on the development of COVID-19 vaccines and highlights the efficacy and adverse reactions of vaccines authorized for emergency use.

Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Vaccines, Clinical trials, Immunity, Population.
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