REVIEW ARTICLE


The Immune Response, Safety, and Efficacy of Emergency Use Authorization-Granted COVID-19 Vaccines: A Review



Tafere M. Belete1, *
1 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Tafere M. Belete

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address corresponding to this author at the Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia; Tel +251 918045943; E-mail: mutafere@yahoo.com


Abstract

COVID-19 has affected millions of people, causing a burden on healthcare systems as well as economies throughout the world. Antiviral drugs do not work well enough for everyone. The mortality rate in the world is still significant. Developing safe, effective, affordable, and fast-acting vaccines for COVID-19 is critical for reducing new viral strains in this pandemic and re-establishing normality in the future. Therefore, several pharmaceutical companies are racing to develop effective vaccines for COVID-19. Scientists have developed different kinds of candidate vaccines with various platforms. By March 2021, thirteen vaccines were approved for emergency use in several countries across the world, whilst over 90 vaccine candidates were under clinical trials. There are also several vaccine candidates in Phase 3 trials awaiting results and approval for their use. These candidate vaccines revealed positive results in the previous phase trials, whereby they can induce an immune response with less adverse reaction in the participants. This review focuses on the development of COVID-19 vaccines and highlights the efficacy and adverse reactions of vaccines authorized for emergency use.

Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Vaccines, Clinical trials, Immunity, Population.