Characteristic of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae from Fecal Carriage Isolates of Intensive Care Unit Patients at Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia

I Kadek B.A. Candra1, Ferdi Yanto2, I Wayan Suranadi2, Ni Nengah D. Fatmawati1, *
1 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

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© 2021 Candra et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/ Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar Bali; Tel: +62361222510 # 201; E-mail:



The increasing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) infections in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) needs an early warning system for the detection of these bacteria. The ESBL-PE fecal carriage analysis is a screening method that can be used to detect and characterize these bacteria. Furthermore, it aids in assessing an ICU patient’s risk of possible infection and prevent its transmission to the other patients within the period of hospitalization; therefore, enhancing the quality of patient care while alsoreducing morbidity and mortality due to ESBL-PE infection in ICU.


The study aimed to determine the antibiogram and molecular characteristics of ESBL-PE fecal carriage from ICU patients at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali.


This cross-sectional retrospective study involved 30 stored-bacterial isolates of ESBL-PE from a rectal swab of ICU patients who had just been admitted to the ICU of Sanglah General Hospital from February to March 2019, consecutively. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates were conducted using Vitek-2 Compact (bioMérieux®, Marcy-l'Etoile, France), while genotype identification was conducted using PCR for the detection of blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes.


Thirty bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (24/30) and Klebsiella spp. (6/30) and detected as ESBL-producing isolates by Vitek-2 Compact. All isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem, and amikacin. Twenty-two (73.3%) isolates harbored ESBLs blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes, either individually or in combination. Most of the isolates had the combination of ESBL genes. About 20% (6/30) of isolates had a combination of blaTEM and blaCTX-M, while 10% (3/30) of them possessed all of the three genes detected in this study. Only 3.3% (1/30) of the isolates had each combination of blaTEM and blaSHV as well as blaSHV and blaCTX-M. Meanwhile, 16.7% (5/30) of the isolates were detected to have each single gene of blaCTX-M or blaTEM, and only one isolate (3.3%) harbored blaSHV.


High prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M ESBL genes harbored by fecal flora of patients who had just been admitted in ICU give rise to the risk for transmission among critically ill patients in ICU. Fecal screening of ESBL-PE besides infection control can be considered for those patients who have a risk factor of ESBL-PE colonization before they are being admitted to the ICU.

Keywords: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Intensive care unit, ESBL-encoded genes, Fecal carriage, Enterobacteriaceae.