An Overview on Resistivity, Diagnostic Challenges and Zoonotic Significance of: Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)

Niran Adhikari1, *

1 Animal Health Training and Consultancy Services, Pokhara, Nepal

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© 2020 Niran Adhikari.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Animal Health Training and Consultancy Services, Pokhara, Nepal; Tel: 9845271544; E-mail: adhikari.niran16@gmail.com



Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a gram-positive, contagious, rod-shaped intracellular pathogen.


MAP is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, and has tremendous economic effect in the ruminant industry. Simultaneously, the MAP has also been suspected as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans.


There has been a challenge in the diagnosis of MAP due to its long incubation period, unknown pathogenesis & cross-reactivity among its closely related sub-species. The survival of MAP inside the host macrophages & monocytes, is still unclear. Resistivity & survival of MAP in the outside environment is also high.


Thus, more research about its pathogenesis, control, and potential role as a zoonotic pathogen must be carried out in future.

Keywords: Johne’s disease, Resistance, Ruminants, Zoonosis, Mycobacterium, Diagnosis.