Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activities of Sumac Fruit (Rhus coriaria) Essential Oil on Dental Caries Pathogens

Parisa Moghadam1, Shahram Dadelahi2, Yasamin S. Hajizadeh1, Milad G. Matin1, Milad Amini3, Saba Hajazimian4, *
1 Department of Microbiology, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

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Creative Commons License
© 2020 Moghadam et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Tel: +98-9036794228; E-mail:



Dental caries is an infectious disease, and various microorganisms are involved in its progression. The common antibacterial agents against oral pathogens have many side effects and their excessive use cause drug resistance. Therefore, the identification of natural compounds and medicinal plants with antibacterial activity has been considered by the researchers. The Sumac (Rhus coriaria) is one of the native plants of Iran, which used as a food flavoring.

Aims & Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Sumac essential oil on oral pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus.

Materials & Methods:

In this study, the Sumac essential oil was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) methods on established terminology strains of S. mutans, L. rhamnosus, and A. viscosus.


The obtained results showed that the Sumac essential oil has high inhibitory effects against S. mutans, followed by L. rhamnosus and A. viscosus. The predominant compound in the Sumac essential oil was related to Beta-caryophyllene.


In conclusion, Sumac essential oil has an appropriate antibacterial activity and can be used in the pharmaceutical industry to produce antibacterial agents and mouthwash, against oral infectious diseases and dental caries.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential oil, Sumac, Oral pathogens, Agar disk diffusion, Broth micro-dilution, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.