RESEARCH ARTICLE


Molecular Study of Lactobacilli Species in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus



Amr Mohamed El-Sabbagh1, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki2, *, Mohamad Mohsen Motawea3, Nashwa M. Alkasaby1
1 Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
2 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
3 Diabetes and Endocrinology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 El-Sabbagh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; E-mail: maysaazaki5@hotmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies due to disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Egypt is among the top 10 countries with a high prevalence of T2DM (15.56% of adults). There are studies that show a link between the diversity of the gut microbiota and the development of T2DM. There are species of Lactobacilli that inhabit the gut that might differ in patients with T2DM compared to healthy subjects.

Objective:

The aim of the present research is to study the presence of Lactobacilli species in gut microbiota by multiplex PCR in patients with T2DM compared to healthy controls as a preliminary approach to open the way for future treatment with the help of probiotics or diet modulation.

Methods:

A retrograde case-control study was conducted on 79 patients with T2DM and 100 healthy controls cross-matched with age and sex. All patients were subjected to full clinical examination and laboratory tests, including identification of stool Lactobacillus species by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results:

Certain species of L. acidophilus, and L. rhamnosus were found to be significantly increased in patients with T2DM (67.1%, 50.6% respectively) compared to control subjects (35%, P=0.001, OR 3.8, 95% CI:2.1-7.1, 25%, P=0.001, OR 3.1, 95% CI:1.64-5.8 respectively). Other species as determined by multiplex PCR, namely, L. gasseri, (70%, P=0.001, OR 0.16, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3), L. reuteri (74%, P=0.001, OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.5-0.53), and L. plantarum (69%, P=0.003, OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.073-0.22) were significantly higher in prevalence in control compared to patients with T2DM.

Conclusion:

The present study highlights the significant prevalence of certain species of Lactobacilli in gut as determined by multiplex PCR, namely L. gasseri, L. reuteri and L. plantarum in controls compared to patients with T2DM. These species may have a role in the reduction of certain risk factors associated with the development of T2DM. Moreover, certain species of L. acidophilus, L. delbrueckii and L. rhamnosus were significantly increased in prevalence in patients with T2DM. The findings of this preliminary study need further verification by a larger longitudinal study.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Lactobacillus, Multiplex PCR, L. gasseri, L. delbrueckii, L. rhamnosus.