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Different Aspects Concerning Viral Infection and the Role of MHC Molecules in Viral Prevention



Tirasak Pasharawipas1, *
1 Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Pathumthani 12000, Thailand


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Creative Commons License
© 2021 Tirasak Pasharawipas

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand-12000;
E-mails: tirasak4124@yahoo.com; tirasak.p@rsu.ac.th


Abstract

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules play a crucial role in inducing an adaptive immune response. T-cell epitopes require compatible MHC molecules to form MHC-peptide Complexes (pMHC) that activate the T-cell Receptors (TCR) of T-lymphocyte clones. MHCs are polymorphic molecules with wide varieties of gene alleles. There are two classes of MHC molecules, class I and II. Both classes have three classical loci HLA-A, -B, and –C are present in class I and HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR in class II. To induce a compatible T-lymphocyte clone, the T-cell epitope requires the association of the compatible MHC molecule to form pMHC. Each MHC variant possesses a different groove that is capable of binding a different range of antigenic epitopes. Without the compatible MHC molecule, a T cell clone cannot be activated by a particular viral epitope. With the aim of preventing viral transmission, the efficiency of a viral vaccine is related to the existence of specific MHC alleles in the individual. This article proposes the roles of the MHC molecule to prevent viral infection. In addition, the association of the viral receptor molecule with the viral infection will also be discussed.

Keywords: Major histocompatibility complex, pMHC, Viral vaccines, Viral invasion, Viral infection, Viral prevention, Viral clearance.