A Nanoparticles based Microbiological Study on the Effect of Rosemary and Ginger Essential Oils against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Rania Abozahra*, 1, Sarah M. Abdelhamid1, Ming Ming Wen2, Ibrahim Abdelwahab3, Kholoud Baraka1
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt
2 Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy & Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

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Creative Commons License
© 2020 Abozahra et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt; Tel: 002 01284458834; Fax: 002 0453334596; E-mails:;



Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen in outbreaks of hospital infections. It is one of the major factors for morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially those infected with colistin-resistant pathogens. Many plant essential oils have antimicrobial activities and have been investigated as natural sources to combat multiple antibiotic resistances. Moreover, recent advances in phytonanotechnology have created exciting opportunities for the management of many infections.


This study aims at investigating the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of rosemary and ginger essential oil-based nano-sized formulations on colistin resistant K. pneumonia clinical isolates.


Isolation and identification of 30 K. pneumonia isolates from different human samples were done followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and detection of biofilm gene (mrkD). Examination of the activity of the tested essential oils and their chitosan nanoparticle formulations against the selected isolates was made by determination of their MICs using broth microdilution method followed by biofilm inhibition test and quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of mrkD gene in the presence of the oils and nanoparticles formulations compared to untreated bacterial isolates.


Our results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of rosemary and ginger oils was 1250 μg/ml, that of nanostructured lipid carrier-rosemary oil and nanostructured lipid carrier-ginger oil was 625 μg/ml and rosemary oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles and ginger oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles possessed minimum inhibitory concentration of 156 μg/ml. Results also revealed complete (100%) inhibition for mrkD gene expression when compared to untreated K. pneumonia.


Oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed the highest antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity.

Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Nanostructured lipid carrier nanoparticles, Essential oil-loaded chitosan nanoparticles, antibiofilm activity , Antibiotic resistances, Lipid carrier-ginger oil.