Taxonomic and Functional Annotation of Termite Degraded Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze (Flame of the Forest)

Ashwani Kumar1, *, Preeti Vyas1, Muneer A. Malla2, Anamika Dubey1
1 Department of Botany, Metagenomics and Secretomics Research Laboratory, Dr. Harisingh Gour University (A Central University), Sagar-470003, (M.P.), India
2 Department of Zoology, Dr. Harisingh Gour University (A Central University), Sagar-470003, (M.P.), India

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© 2019 Kumar et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Botany, Metagenomics and Secretomics Research Laboratory, Dr. Harisingh Gour University (A Central University), Sagar-470003,(M.P.), India;
Tel: +917697432012; Fax: 7582264236; E-mail:



Butea monosperma is an economically and medicinally important plant that grows all over India, however, the plant is highly susceptible to termite attack. The present study unravelled the bacterial community composition and their functional attributions from the termite degraded Butea.


Total genomic DNA from termite degraded Butea monosperma samples was extracted and subjected to sequencing on Illumina's Miseq. The raw and unassembled reads obtained from high-throughput sequencing were used for taxonomic and functional profiling using different online and stand-alone softwares. Moreover, to ascertain the effect of different geographical locations and environmental factors, comparative analysis was performed using four other publically available metagenomes.


The higher abundance of Actinobacteria (21.27%), Proteobacteria (14.18%), Firmicutes (10.46%), and Bacteroidetes (4.11%) was found at the phylum level. The genus level was dominated by Bacillus (4.33%), Gemmatimonas (3.13%), Mycobacterium (1.82%), Acidimicrobium (1.69%), Thermoleophilum (1.23%), Nocardioides (1.44%), Terrimonas and Acidithermus (1.09%) and Clostridium (1.05%). Functional annotation of the termite degraded B. monosperma metagenome revealed a high abundance of ammonia oxidizers, sulfate reducers, dehalogenators, nitrate reducers, sulfide oxidizers, xylan degraders, nitrogen fixers and chitin degraders.


The present study highlights the significance of the inherent microbiome of the degraded Butea shaping the microbial communities for effective degradation of biomass and different environmental toxicants. The unknown bacterial communities present in the sample can serve as enzyme sources for lignocelluloses degradation for biofuel production.

Keywords: Butea monosperma, Termites, DNA sequencing, Lignocellulose, Biofuel, Environmental toxicants.