Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Raw Meat and Ghanaian Coin Currencies at Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana: The Public Health Implication

Alberta S. Anning1, Arnold A. Dugbatey1, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako1, Kwame K. Asare1, 2 , *
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
2 Department of Protozoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki852-8523, Japan

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Creative Commons License
© 2019 Anning et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Protozoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Tel: (81)-95-819-7838
Fax: (81)-95-819-7805; E-mail:



The emergence and upsurge of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae in the environment is a cause of concern as this can result in an outbreak and spread to healthcare settings. MDR Enterobacteriaceae have been associated with high morbidity and mortality due to delay in selecting and delivering active therapy in time.

Aims & Objectives:

The study was conducted to investigate the level of contamination of raw meat and Ghanaian coins in circulation at Cape Coast Metropolis. In all, 10 raw meat were sampled each from chevron and beef from Kotokuraba market, and 400 Ghanaian coin currencies retrieved from food vendors, students, transport operators and banks were used in this study.

Materials & Methods:

The Enterobacteriaceae species isolated were tested for their susceptibility to Ampicillin, Tetracycline (TET), Gentamicin (GEN), Cotrimoxazole (COT), Cefuroxime (CRX), Cefixime (CXM), Cefotaxime (CTX), Penicillin (PEN), Cloxacillin (CXC), Erythromycin (ERY) and Amikacin (AMK) antibiotics using Mueller-Hinton agar antibiotic diffusion technique. Of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, 30% and 62% from chevron and beef respectively and 14.17%, 13.75% and 10.63% from food vendors, students and transport operators respectively showed resistance to some of the antibiotics tested.

Results & Discussion:

8.6% of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from chevon were resistant to CRXr-CHLr-AMPr-COTr-GEMr and 15.5% of CRXi-CHLi-AMPr-TETr-COTr from beef. 40.0% of E. coli isolated from coin currencies were resistant to CRXr-CHLr-AMPr-TETr-CTXr, 50.0% of Enterobacter spp to CRXr-CHLr-AMPr-TETr-CTXr, 16.67% of Proteus spp to CRXi-CHLi-AMPr-TETr-AMKi, 40% Pseudomonas spp to CRXr-AMPr-TETr-AMKi and 100% of Enterobacter spp to CRXr-AMPr-TETi-CTXr.


The multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from circulating Ghanaian coins and raw meats in the Cape Coast metropolis is an indication of an impending danger which requires immediate attention to prevent a possible outbreak and spread from the society to the hospital setting.

Keywords: Multiple drug resistance (MDR), Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), Enterobacteriaceae, Meat source Enterobacteriaceae, Ghana cedi, Cape coast.