In vitro Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Nicotiana tabacum L. Extracted in Different Organic Solvents



Gemechu Ameya1, *, Aseer Manilal1, Behailu Merdekios2
1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
2 Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia


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© 2017 Ameya et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia, Tel: +251-91-783-7681; Fax: +251-46-881-4964; E-mail: gemechuameya@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Controlling infectious disease using medicinal plants is the oldest healthcare known to mankind. Regardless of the enormous advances observed in modern medicine, medicinal plants are still playing vital roles. However, only a small proportion of medicinal plants are examined for bioactive compounds which may vary in different factors. This study aimed to evaluate phytochemical constituent and antimicrobial activities of Nicotiana tabacum L. extracted by different solvents against three set of bacteria.

Methods:

Nicotiana tabacum L. was collected from the Western Ethiopia and extracted in seven organic solvents. An in-vitro anti-bacterial activity of plant extracts was carried out by agar well diffusion assay against microbial type culture collection of human pathogens, clinical bacterial isolates, and biofilm forming bacteria. Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectroscopic (GC-MS) analysis was used to determine the phytochemical constituents.

Results:

Antimicrobial activities of plant extract vary by extraction solvents; and ethyl acetate based extracts showed better antimicrobial activities. Of the experimental organisms, biofilm forming uropathogens were the most sensitive while clinical isolates were quite resistant. Analysis of the active ethyl acetate extract by GC-MS evinced a mixture of five volatile compounds; and Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S) was the major compound detected. The overall results of the present study revealed that N. tabacum L extract has high antimicrobial activities against biofilm forming uropathogens.

Conclusion:

High antimicrobial activity was observed in ethyl acetate extract of N. tabacum against the biofilm forming bacteria whereas the clinically isolated bacteria were the most resistant group. The antibacterial property demonstrated could be due to Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-(S) with a broad spectrum of activity.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Nicotiana tabacum L, Phytochemical analysis, Plant extract, Antibacterial property, Spectrum.