Protective Effect of Anti-Phosphatidylserine Antibody in a Guinea Pig Model of Advanced Hemorrhagic Arenavirus Infection
John M. Thomas1, *, Philip E. Thorpe2
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2017
First Page: 303
Last Page: 315
Publisher ID: TOMICROJ-11-303
Article History:Received Date: 01/08/2017
Revision Received Date: 01/11/2017
Acceptance Date: 11/11/2017
Electronic publication date: 30/11/2017
Collection year: 2017
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Host derived markers on virally infected cells or virions may provide targets for the generation of antiviral agents. Recently, we identified phosphatidylserine (PS) as a host marker of virions and virally-infected cells.
Methods and Materials:
Under normal physiological conditions, PS is maintained on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane facing the cytosol. Following viral infection, activation or pre-apoptotic changes cause PS to become externalized. We have previously shown that bavituximab, a chimeric human-mouse antibody that binds PS complexed with β2-glycoprotein I (β2GP1), protected rodents against lethal Pichinde virus and cytomegalovirus infections.
Here, we determined the antiviral activity of a fully human monoclonal antibody, PGN632, that directly binds to PS. Treatment with PGN632 protected 20% of guinea pigs with advanced infections of the hemorrhagic arenavirus, Pichinde, from death. Combining PGN632 with ribavirin improved the antiviral activity of both agents, such that the combination rescued 50% of animals from death.
The major mechanisms of action of PGN632 appear to be opsonization of virus and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of virally-infected cells. PS-targeting agents may have utility in the treatment of viral diseases.