Pre-Transplant Screening for Latent Adenovirus in Donors and Recipients



Gabriella Piatti*, 1, 2
1 Department of Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences, Section of Microbiology, University of Genoa, Italy
2 Division of Microbiology, San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy


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© Gabriella Piatti; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences, Section of Microbiology, University of Genoa, Italy; Tel: 39-320 4207437; 39-010 3537658; E-mail: piatti@unige.it


Abstract

Human adenoviruses are frequent cause of slight self-limiting infections in immune competent subjects, while causing life-threatening and disseminated diseases in immunocompromised patients, particularly in the subjects affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in bone marrow and organ transplant recipients. Here, infections interest lungs, liver, encephalon, heart, kidney and gastro enteric tract. To date, human adenoviruses comprise 51 serotypes grouped into seven species, among which species C especially possesses the capability to persist in infected tissues. From numerous works, it emerges that in the recipient, because of loss of immune-competence, both primary infection, via the graft or from the environment, and reactivated endogenous viruses can be responsible for transplantation related adenovirus disease. The transplants management should include the evaluation of anti-adenovirus pre-transplant screening similar to that concerning cytomegalovirus. The serological screening on cytomegalovirus immunity is currently performed to prevent viral reactivation from grafts and recipient, the viral spread and dissemination to different organs and apparatus, and potentially lethal outcome.

Keywords: Adenovirus, antibodies, latency, reactivation, real-time polymerase chain reaction, screening, serostatus, transplantation.