Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil



Isabelle Ribeiro Barbosaa, c, Francisco Canindé Carlotaa, Valter Ferreira de Andrade-Netob, c, *
a Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, Departamento de Vigilância à Saúde, Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Natal/RN,Brazil
b Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Av Senador Salgado Filho Sn, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-970 - Natal/RN, Brazil
c Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Av Senador Salgado Filho Sn, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-970 - Natal/RN, Brazil


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© Barbosa et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the VFAN at Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Av Senador Salgado Filho Sn, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-970 - Natal/RN, Brazil; Tel: +55 84 3215-3437; Ext: 225; Fax: +55 84 3211-9210; E-mail: aneto@cb.ufrn.br


Abstract

Background and Objective:

Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).

Methods:

Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05.

RESULTS:

The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed.

Conclusion:

The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies.

Keywords: Canine visceral leishmaniasis, ELISA assay, Epidemiology, IFA assay..