Stimulation of Human CD4+ T Lymphocytes via TLR3, TLR5 and TLR7/8 Up-Regulates Expression of Costimulatory and Modulates Proliferation

Rita Simone1, 2, Antonio Floriani1, 3, Daniele Saverino1, *
1 Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Genova, Via De Toni 14, 16132 Genova
2 Section of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Verona, Italy
3 Polizia di Stato, Italy

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 4402
Abstract HTML Views: 2948
PDF Downloads: 869
Total Views/Downloads: 8219
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1691
Abstract HTML Views: 1696
PDF Downloads: 615
Total Views/Downloads: 4002

Creative Commons License
© Simone et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Genova, Via De Toni 14, 16132 Genova (Italy); Tel: +39-010-3537872; Fax: +39-010-3537885; E-mail:


The cells of innate and adaptive immunity, although activated by different ligands, engage in cross talk to ensure a successful immune outcome. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system and have the ability to detect microbial infection and trigger host defence responses. Otherwise, human T lymphocytes are able to produce most TLRs. Thus, we analyze the capability of some TLR ligands to modulate the function of highly-purified CD4+ T cells. We found that agents acting via TLRs (poly I:C, a TLR3 ligand; flagellin, a TLR5 ligand; and R848, a TLR7/8 ligand) are able to regulate the expression of costimulatory molecules both on purified antigen presenting cells and on purified T lymphocytes. Moreover, the activation mediated by TLRs determines a kinetic expression of B7-family members such as through an inhibition of T lymphocytes delayed proliferation. These findings suggest a functional role of some invading microorganisms in regulating acquired immunity.

Key Words: B7-family receptors, T lymphocytes, Toll-like receptors.