REVIEW ARTICLE


Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Therapeutic Challenge in the 21st Century



Eric S. Donkor1, *, Francis S. Codjoe2, 3
1 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical & Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu KB 143Accra, Ghana
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical & Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu KB 143Accra, Ghana
3 Biomolecular Science Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK


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© 2019 Donkor and Codjoe.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical & Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu KB 143 Accra, Ghana;
Tel: +233553527140; E-mail: esampane-donkor@ug.edu.gh


Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest global threats to human health in recent times and it limits the achievement of several of the Sustainable Development Goals. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae are among the most important multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae have evolved significantly over the last few decades with important clinical and epidemiological implications. Given the slow progress of development of new antibiotics in recent times, it is likely that these multidrug resistant pathogens will have a greater impact on public health in the 21st Century, unless other effective control measures are instituted. Effective infection control strategies coupled with antibiotic stewardship programs are required to limit the spread and burden of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin, ESBL, AMR.