REVIEW ARTICLE


Microbial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance in Nepal: Current Trends and Recommendations



Ram H. Dahal1, *, Dhiraj K. Chaudhary2
1 Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Katmhandu, Nepal
2 Department of Soil Science, Prithu Technical College, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal


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Creative Commons License
© 2018 Dahal and Chaudhary.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, GPO Box 5859, Sundhara, Kathmandu, Nepal; Tel: +977-9841-246887; E-mail: ramhari.dahal@gmail.com


Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is a life threatening challenges to the world. Most of the well-known antibiotics are currently ineffective to several microbial diseases. Ampicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and ceftazidime are common antibiotics whose resistance pattern has been elevated in recent years. The rise and dissemination of resistant bacteria has contributed in increasing cases of antimicrobial resistance. Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomionas aeruginosa, Escherchia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are principal problems for public health and stakeholders. Globally, issues of antimicrobial resistance are major concern. In the context of Nepal, insufficient surveillance system, lack of appropriate policy, and poor publications regarding the use of antibiotics and its resistance pattern has misled to depict exact scenario of antimicrobial resistance. This mini-review presents current trends of antibiotic use and its resistance pattern in Nepal. In addition, global progression of antibiotic discovery and its resistance has been covered as well. Furthermore, use of antibiotics and possible ways on improvement of effectiveness have been discussed.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Microbial infection, Antibiotic susceptibility, MRSA, MDR, Nepal.