ESBL Production Among E. coli and Klebsiella spp. Causing Urinary Tract Infection: A Hospital Based Study

Pooja Shakya1, , Dhiraj Shrestha*, 2, , Elina Maharjan1, Vijay K. Sharma3, Rabin Paudyal2
1 Department of Microbiology, Kathmandu College of Science and Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple College, Ghantaghar, Kathmandu, Nepal.
3 Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal

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© 2017 Shakya et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Microbiology, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, TU; Address:Ghantaghar, Kathmandu, Nepal; E-mail:
Equal contribution



Increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing microbes in recent years has led to limitations of treatment options. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. at a tertiary hospital in Nepal.


A total of 2209 non-repetitive mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected during the study period (March to September 2014). Identification of the isolates was done by Gram's staining followed by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and interpretation was done following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines, 2013. ESBL screening among E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were done using ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefpodoxime. The confirmation was done by phenotypic disc diffusion test (combined disc method) using ceftazidime (30µg) and ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid (30/10µg), and cefotaxime (30µg) and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid (30/10µg) disc as per CLSI guidelines.


A total of 451 samples showed significant bacteriuria with 365 (80.9%) E. coli, 17 (3.8%) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 (0.7%) Klebsiella oxytoca. Of 451 isolates, 236 (52.3%) were found MDR strains. By combined disk test, 33 (91.7%) E. coli and 3 (8.3%) Klebsiella spp. were found ESBL producers.


Higher prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. was observed warranting prompt need of surveillance for effective management of such MDR strains.

Keywords: E. coli, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase, ESBL, Klebsiella, Nepal, Urinary tract infection, UTI.