Multi-Sectoral Involvement in the National Action Plan on Anti-Microbial Resistance in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study

Salamat Khandker1, Shruthi Anna Thomas2, Syed Billal Hossain1, Aivee Akther1, Abul Hasan BakiBillah1, Faisal Muhammad1, *, Philip Mathew3, Sheikh Akhtar Ahmad4
1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 ReAct Asia Pacific, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 ReAct Asia Pacific AMR Advisor, ICARS, Copenhagen, Denmark
4 Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh



To combat anti-microbial resistance in Bangladesh, a national action plan is designed with the involvement of multiple sectors.


Sixteen participants were interviewed virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires were used for data collection using the Key-Informant Interview (KII) technique. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of relevant information.


Bangladesh has no specific monitoring body for antibiotic prescription, and professionals do not follow national guidelines. Most healthcare settings don't have any protocol for Infection Prevention and Control (IPC), Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), and monitoring facilities. The main factor of Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR) is the availability and accessibility of antibiotics and the dealers who supply antibiotics. Patients consume antibiotics without consulting any qualified doctor. The COVID-19 pandemic and the occurrence of AMR have escalated the use of antibiotics. Abuse of antibiotics in the animal industry is a worrying trend. The Bangladesh National Action Plan 2017 on AMR (BNAP), however, persuaded the top court to issue a ruling restricting the sale of antibiotics without a prescription and to establish an antibiotic surveillance system across the nation. The BNAP on AMR policy has been more effectively implemented thanks to multi-sectoral cooperation.


To monitor current facilities and spot trends in antibiotic resistance, a multi-sectoral regulatory organization specifically focused on AMR is desperately needed.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Microbes, Public Health, Sensitivity, Infection Control, Bangladesh.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2023
Volume: 17
DOI: 10.2174/18742858-v17-e230202-2022-24

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 02/02/2023
Collection year: 2023

© 2023 Khandker et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Public Health, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Email: