Applications of Metagenomics for Unrevealing the Extended Horizons of Microbiota Prevalence from Soil to Human Health
Vrishty Sharma1, Muneer Ahmad Malla2, Rajesh Kumar Kori1, 3, *, Rajesh Singh Yadav3, Zaffar Azam2
Phylogenetic analysis of different ecosystems has shown that the number of microbial communities in a single sample exceeds their cultured counterparts. Microbes have been found throughout nature and can thrive in adverse conditions. Besides inhabit in the diverse environments, they also play a key role in the maintenance of the ecosystem. Most of these microbes are either unculturable or difficult to culture with conventional culturing methods. Metagenomics is an emerging field of science that came into light for a decade and offers a potential way to assess microbial diversity. The development of metagenomics opens new ways to study genetic material directly from the environmental samples. DNA sequencing and synthesis technologies are making it possible to read and write entire genomes, and the huge amount of data obtained from the genome sequencing inevitably requires bioinformatics tools to handle and further process them for analysis. Advances in DNA sequencing and high-performance computing have brought about exemplar improvement in metagenomics, allowing in-depth study of the largely unexplored frontier of microbial life. This culture-independent method provides extensive information regarding the structure, composition, and function of the diverse assemblages of the environmental microbes. The present review presents an overview of the technical aspects of metagenomics along with its diverse applications.
* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Forensic Science College of traffic Management –Institute of Road Traffic Education, Faridabad (Haryana), India; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org