Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe



Doreen Mhandire1, 2, Kerina Duri3, Mamadou Kaba2, 4, Kudakwashe Mhandire5, Cuthbert Musarurwa5, Emile Chimusa1, 2, Privilege Munjoma5, Lovemore Mazengera3, Babill Stray-Pedersen6, Collet Dandara1, 2, *
1 Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
2 Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
3 Department of Immunology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe
4 Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
5 Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe
6 Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo and Women’s Clinic, Rikshospitalet, University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

Abstract

Objective:

To investigate the seroprevalence of CMV infection and risk factors associated with CMV acquisition among pregnant women in Zimbabwe.

Design and Methods:

In a cross-sectional study, we recruited pregnant women in late gestation, seeking antenatal care at council clinics in 3 high-density suburbs in Harare, Zimbabwe. Anti-CMV IgM and IgG antibodies were quantified in serum using an enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody avidity tests were used to distinguish active infection from viral reactivation in anti-CMV IgM positive cases.

Results:

We recruited 524 women; 278 HIV-infected and 246 HIV-uninfected. Current or active CMV infection defined as IgM positive + low avidity was detected in 4.6% (24/524), 95%CI; 3-6.9 in all women, 5.8 (16/278) in the HIV-infected and 3.3% (8/246), 95%; 1.4-6.3 in the HIV-uninfected. IgG seroprevalence was 99.6% (522/524), 95%CI; 98.6-99.9 in all women. Notably, the difference in the prevalence of active CMV infection between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women was not statistically significant (p=0.173).

Conclusions:

The study shows a low prevalence of primary or active CMV infection among the pregnant women, but the IgG seroprevalence suggests high previous CMV exposure. Importantly, CMV seroprevalence was not associated with the HIV status of the women, perhaps due to the ubiquitous exposure of the population to CMV.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Seroprevalence, Active infection, Infection reactivation, Reinfection, Vertical transmission.


Abstract Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOMICROJ-2018-65

Article History:

Received Date: 18/10/2018
Revision Received Date: 17/12/2018
Acceptance Date: 18/12/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Mhandire et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Tel: +27 214066506; Fax: +27 214066826; E-mail: collet.dandara@uct.ac.za